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Page 10 of 936 Results 91 - 100 of 9356

Francesca Volpi, Michela Albano, Giacomo Fiocco, Maduka Weththimuni, Marco Malagodi, Chiara Delledonne, Chaehoon Lee
Unveiling Hidden Insights of Ancient Roman wall paintings in Cremona: In-Depth Knowledge Beyond the Surface with Spectroscopic Analysis

This research represents the first non-invasive analytical study on the wall paintings of the Domus del Ninfeo (1st century B.C.) excavated in Cremona. Scientific analysis played a crucial role in investigating the pigments and the painting technique that contributed to a deeper understanding of one of the provinces of ancient Rome in Northern Italy. To this aim we utilized portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) combined with FTIR spectroscopy in external reflection mode (ER-FTIR) for characterizing the wall decorations. The outcomes revealed that wall paintings were executed using the fresco technique, employing costly pigments such as Egyptian blue for blue and green shades, and cinnabar for vibrant red and pink hues. These expensive pigments were sometimes mixed with more common pigments like green earth and red ochre, while calcium carbonate was used for white tones and lighting effects. Overall, this research deepened our understanding of the artistic practices and connections between coeval societies of the Roman Empire.

Maduka Lankani Weththimuni, Giacomo Fiocco, Francesca Volpi, Marco Malagodi, Maurizio Licchelli
Nano-hydroxyapatite for the conservation of Serena stone

In past decades, interest in using nanomaterials for the preservation of valuable cultural heritages was rapidly increased due to their excellent properties. In the present study, a biomimic method for the consolidation of sandstone (i.e. Serena stone) by hydroxyapatite was investigated. The strategy is to mimic the growth of bone like crystals: calcium (as Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles) and phosphorus (as diammonium hydrogen phosphate) are introduced into stone substrate and then, mineralized in-situ at room temperature. Before the treatments, Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles have been synthesized and characterized by different methods: scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). In addition to that, the conservation efficacy was ascertained by measuring physical-structural properties, especially the resistance to weathering induced by salt crystallization.

Elena Testa, Luca Lanteri, Giuseppe Capobianco, Giuseppe Bonifazi, Silvia Serranti, Francesca Montozzi, Paola Pogliani, Claudia Pelosi
The use of micaceous pigments for the chromatic reintegration of the gilded stuccoes in the Lante della Rovere chapel of Palazzo Orsini at Bomarzo

The present paper summarizes the fundamental results of the study and restoration of the gilded stucco decoration of the Lante Della Rovere Chapel of Palazzo Orsini in Bomarzo (Viterbo), which was the subject of a master's thesis in Conservation and Restoration of Cultural Heritage at University of Tuscia. The diagnostics was fundamental for understanding the executive technique and investigating the problems relating to the state of conservation of the artefact. It was performed by in situ non-invasive techniques such as ultraviolet fluorescence photography and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and in the laboratory by micro-invasive analysis through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. After the characterisation of the materials, the execution techniques, and the state of conservation of the stuccoes, some tests were executed on mocks-up to evaluate the possibility of using micaceous pigments to reintegrate the gilded surfaces. The mock-ups were investigated by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy in mapping modality to evaluate the pigments’ composition. The stability over time of the micaceous pigments was evaluated through colour measurement, and hyperspectral imaging.

Giuseppe Capobianco, Claudia Pelosi, Luca Lanteri, Giuseppe Bonifazi, Oriana Trotta, Silvia Serranti
Monitoring of protective products on Peperino stone using portable devices

The aim of the research presented in this paper is to monitor the stability of three protective products applied on samples of Peperino stone, a volcanic tuff widely used for the historic buildings and architectural elements in Viterbo (Italy), using portable devices. More in detail, two different monitoring techniques were applied: VIS-NIR point spectroscopy (400-1000 nm), and colorimetry. In order to characterize the compositional variability and homogeneity of the samples, X-ray micro-fluorescence (micro-XRF) was preliminary used. Data were acquired before and after the application of the different products in order to monitor and detect the efficiency of the considered low-impact products. Peperino samples were also aged in a Solar Box chamber for 1000 h to simulate a solar irradiation and measurements were repeated at the end of the ageing period to evaluate the stability of the protective products.

Giovanni Gugliandolo, Alessio Altadonna, Adriana Arena, Marina Arena, Luigi Calabrese, Giuseppe Campobello, Giovanni Crupi, Daniela Iannazzo, Francesca Passalacqua, Fabio Todesco, Maria Gabriella Xibilia, Nicola Donato
Microwave transducers for moisture content characterization of cultural heritage materials

This paper presents the design, fabrication, and test of a microwave transducer aimed at monitoring the moisture content in cultural heritage materials, which is a critical factor in the preservation of historic structures. Following the principle of preventive restoration, the proposed sensor ensures non-invasive and contactless measurements, which are features highly desired for monitoring fragile and valuable structures. The proposed two-port device operates in the frequency range from 2.25 GHz to 2.40 GHz and is fabricated on a 1.6-mm-thick FR4 substrate using the versatile inkjet-printing technology. Samples, specially prepared for this research activity, are employed to test and characterize the response of the proposed sensor. The achieved findings show that the microwave transducer offers reliable and nondestructive moisture content evaluation, thus proving valuable insight for the preservation of cultural heritage materials.

Flavia Bartoli, Zohreh Hosseini, Alma Kumbaric, Giulia Caneva
Long-lasting methods to prevent biodeterioration of stone monuments: New silica nanosystem coupled to natural biocide

The phenomenon of biodeterioration of stone materials is particularly relevant when the environmental conditions, the supply of nutrients, and the edaphic conditions (bioreceptivity) favor biological growth (Caneva et al. 2008; Cutler & Viles 2010; Miller et al. 2012). Different treatment methods, such as UV, laser cleaning, microwaves, and heat shock treatments (HSTs) (Tretiach et al. 2012; Mascalchi et al. 2015; Caneva & Tescari 2017; Fidanza & Caneva 2019), such as several biocidal substances have been used in combination with prevention strategies.

Ahmad Badr Aldin Fattal, Rami Al-Ruzouq, Eslam Nofal
The Role of Photogrammetry in the Conservation Management of Al Mahatta Museum, Sharjah, UAE

The conservation management of cultural heritage sites is essential for preserving their historical significance, in which documentation plays a crucial role. Photogrammetry is commonly used in documenting cultural heritage assets, which is a technique that utilizes 2D images to create accurate 3D Models of sites or artifacts. Advancements in open-source software and affordable cameras have made photogrammetry an ideal tool for documenting and visualizing cultural heritage properties compared to other complicated and expensive tools (e.g., 3D laser scanning). This paper explores the role of photogrammetry in the conservation management of Al Mahatta Museum in Sharjah, UAE. The study reviewed related work and investigated how photogrammetry early results can be used as a monitoring tool to identify material deteriorations, enhance the accessibility of information, and facilitate collaboration among different stakeholders. The methodology involved capturing thousands of stereo-pair images, to build a 3D model and ortho-mosaic images. The results demonstrate the potential use of early results of photogrammetry in conservation management. Limitations, such as large data processing, camera resolution, and altitude challenges are also discussed with considerations of improvement.

Rym Bouhamed
Morphological Analysis of the Kheireddine Palace converted into the Museum of Tunis City

This article examines the spatial configuration of the Tunis City Museum through the use of both spatial syntax theory and Wayfinding method. In fact, field observations confirmed that the spatial morphology of the museum presents a smooth and coherent path, allowing users to navigate easily throughout the entire space. Despite similar findings about the museum morphology through concrete collected data, we presume that it is insufficient to draw definitive conclusions. Indeed, it would be more significant to consider other criteria to determine whether the space can be deemed successful and whether it has met the challenge of preserving our architectural heritage. Nevertheless, the ICOM Charter emphasizes the importance of conservation in a museum context. Currently, the museum functions as an art gallery. Thus, this conversion can be seen as a partial success, while offering a high level of spatial quality for a fluent cultural visit.

Lena Bassel, Alessandro Migliori, Roman Padilla Alvarez, Aliz Simon
IAEA fosters the development and applications of accelerator-based analytical techniques for Heritage Science

IAEA Physics Section is strongly involved in the development and utilization of accelerator-based analytical techniques, which are powerful tools for the characterization of cultural and natural heritage objects and materials. Various activities are carried out with the purpose to build capacity, strengthen capabilities, transfer knowledge and foster networking in the field of heritage science. In addition, access to different XRF spectrometers and other analytical techniques is provided at the Nuclear Spectrometry and Instrumentation Laboratory, and access to ion beam accelerators and synchrotrons is facilitated thanks to collaborations with Ruđer Bošković Institute (RBI) in Croatia and the Elettra Sincrotrone facility in Italy. Member States are also supported on their Research and Development programs, as well as through the technical cooperation projects. This paper aims to provide a broad overview about how the IAEA Physics Section is engaged in the field of Heritage Science.

Manuel Greco, Fabio Leccese, Emilio Giovenale, Luca Senni, Andrea Taschin, Andrea Doria
A THz Scanner to Detect Moisture on Wood Samples

In recent years, the use of terahertz techniques in the field of cultural heritage has increased significantly. Due to the low energy of the THz photon, these techniques are non-destructive, non-invasive and non-ionising.
Moreover, terahertz radiation is sensitive to water, so it could be used in the field of cultural heritage to detect water seepage underneath mosaics and frescoes, thus avoiding the formation of salts that would inevitably lead to the detachment of both mosaic tesserae and portions of frescoes. Furthermore, unlike IR reflectography, a technique capable of detecting the presence of underdrawings, THz imaging and spectroscopy techniques are able to have a greater penetration into matter, thus enabling additional information about the artwork to be obtained.
The objective of this study is to detect moisture in a pine wood sample using a 97 GHz terahertz imaging system.

Page 10 of 936 Results 91 - 100 of 9356