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Apostolos Vlachos, Stelios Krinidis, Kimon Papadimitriou, Aggelos Manglis, Anastasia Fourkiotou, Dimitrios Tzovaras
iblueCulture - An Innovative Underwater Cultural Heritage Real-Time Streaming System In A Virtual Reality Environment

The rich and valuable Underwater Cultural Heritage present in the Mediterranean is often overlooked by most, due to the inherent difficulties in physical approach. The iblueCulture project was created to bridge that gap, by introducing a real texturing and streaming system. It captures real time video underwater and uses it to properly texture and represent the Underwater Cultural Heritage site and its immediate surroundings in a Virtual Reality environment. This system has been installed in some modern and ancient shipwrecks in the Greek archipelago, which can be viewed in situ. It can also be modified to work remotely, for example in museums or educational institutions. The system can help make such sites accessible and raise public awareness. It can potentially be used in any underwater site, both for presentation and education, as well as for monitoring and security.

Crescenzo Violante, Enrico Gallocchio, Fabio Pagano, Nikos Papadopulos
Geophysical and geoarchaeological investigations in the Submerged Archaeological Park of Baia (south Italy)

In this paper we present the activities and the preliminary results of archaeo-geophysical and geoarcheological investigations carried out by ISPC_CNR in the Submerged Archaeological Park of Baia (southern Tyrrhenian Sea) in the two-year period 2020-2022 in in the frame of a research agreement with the Phlegraean Fields Archaeological Park (PAFLEG). The surveys were undertaken as part of three marine campaigns carried out in collaboration with the Norbit Subsea of Trondheim (Norway), the Subseafenix of Ravenna (Italy) and the Institute for Mediterranean Studies (IMS) - Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas (FORTH). This latter activity was founded by the Integrated Platform for the European Research Infrastructure on Heritage Science (IPERION HS). The collected data have enabled the characterization and mapping of the archaeological and geological features of the seabed and shallow sub-seabed at very and ultra high resolution, with important and innovative implications on the protection and management of the underwater cultural landscape.

Rosaria Galvagno, Alessia D'Anna, Anna Maria Gueli, Giuseppe Politi, Giuseppe Stella
Thermoluminescence dating of historical buildings as a tool for assessing natural radioactivity risk

The absolute dating of historical buildings through thermally stimulated luminescence techniques involves also in situ and extra situ dosimetry techniques. The age calculation for brick sampled is obtained from the ratio between the absorbed dose through luminescence measurements and the annual dose through the U, Th and K contents and the environmental dose values at the sampling site.
The radioactive contents of the sample and the environmental dose values can be used not only for dating purposes, but also to make assessments related to the level of natural radioactivity present in building materials in the case of historic buildings. The present study considered available data of samples from six sites in eastern Sicily. The analyses performed revealed a correlation between the environmental dose and the latitude of the sites from which the samples came and between the K and Th contents.

Francesco Caridi, Giuseppe Paladini, Santina Marguccio, Maurizio D'Agostino, Alberto Belvedere, Vincenza Crupi, Domenico Majolino, Valentina Venuti
Radioactivity content in construction materials of assets of particular historical-artistic interest

In the present paper, an investigation focused on the natural radioactivity content in construction materials widely employed for the realization of buildings of particular historical-artistic importance, was performed. In particular, the assessment of the activity concentration of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K radioisotopes in red granite and basalt aggregate samples was carried out through High Purity Germanium (HPGe) γ-ray spectrometry. Moreover, several indexes developed to evaluate the radiological risk for human beings related to radiation exposure, i.e. the radiation activity concentration index (I), the alpha index (Iα), the radium equivalent activity (Raeq), the hazard indexes (Hin and Hex), the absorbed γ-dose rate (D) and the annual effective dose equivalent outdoor (AEDEout) and indoor (AEDEin), were calculated.

Simona Mancini, Natasa Todorovic, Serpil Akozcan, Domenico Guida, Albina Cuomo, Michele Guida
Monitoring of indoor Radon in historical heritage buildings by means of passive and active methods. A case study.

Indoor radon in buildings is a major cause of lung cancer in Europe, a risk enhanced by exposure to air pollution and tobacco smoke. Radon monitoring is, so, essential in determining the level of human exposure in living and work places. Recent literature has highlighted that historical buildings and archaeological sites could be affected by high Radon activity concentrations because of not only the entering from the soil but also due to the type of building materials and usage.
This paper is aimed at monitoring Radon concentration measurement in an historical building in Salerno, Italia, where building material could highly contribute to indoor radon levels. The monitoring was performed over a period of 3 month. The measured concentrations ranged in a wide interval up to 263 Bq/m3 in living environments. Analysing the possible sources, both contributions of rad on from the building materials and radon from the soil was observed.

Serpil Akozcan, Simona Mancini, Natasa Todorovic, Selin Ozden, Michele Guida
Assessment of the natural radioactivity content in typical building materials employed in the Italian cultural heritage

Natural radionuclides from the uranium (238U) and thorium (232Th) families, as well as the radioactive isotope potassium, are present in varying concentrations in building materials and products obtained from rock and soil. In Italy, in historical monuments, natural building materials have been largely employed for decorative and structural purposes.
In this study we measured the natural radioactivity content in six different materials (Grey tuff, basalt lava stone, lava stone, sand stone, magmatic rock and travertine). The activity concentrations were determined by high purity germanium (HPGe) detector based gamma spectrometry.
The radium equivalent activity (Raeq), indoor absorbed gamma dose rate (Din), the annual effective dose (De), and the internal and external hazard indexes were evaluated to assess the radiation hazard for people living and working in buildings where these materials are used.

Francesco Caridi, Giuseppe Paladini, Pasquale Faenza, Vincenza Crupi, Domenico Majolino, Valentina Venuti
X-ray fluorescence analysis of bronze sculptures by Giuseppe Renda

In this study the elemental composition analysis of three bronze sculptures by Giuseppe Renda (one of the most famous interpreters of the Neapolitan Verism in the 19th and 20th centuries), respectively named La Fortuna, Scugnizzo and Non mi toccare, was performed, for the first time, by means of portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy.
The analysis of the investigated artefacts, closely related to the sample preparation and preservation, was carried out with the aim of improving the knowledge of the Southern Italy bronze art of the second half of the 20th century and in order to suggest to restorers the best interventions to minimize the conservation problems that could affect the durability of the precious artefacts.
Noteworthy, the achieved results represent useful and essential tools to obtain information on the execution technique, in a completely non-invasive way, and to address management issues of the investigated artworks.

Francesco Caridi, Simona Mancini, Giuseppe Paladini, Pasquale Faenza, Vincenza Crupi, Valentina Venuti, Domenico Majolino
XRF investigation of the Monument to the Fallen of the Great War by Francesco Jerace in San Ferdinando (Reggio Calabria, Italy)

The Monument to the Fallen of the Great War in San Ferdinando (Reggio Calabria, Italy) consists of a copper-based alloy sculpture, made in the 1920s by Francesco Jerace (1853-1937), dedicated in memory of the sub-lieutenant Vito Nunziante and the fallen soldiers from the Great War. It has an important heritage value for the city of San Ferdinando, of which it is considered an identity symbol, and for Southern Italy as well. Due to its proximity and exposure to the marine environment, the monument is a key – example for the characterization of the elemental and molecular composition of the superficial layers of the alloy and the related corrosion products, gathering important in-formation on both the materials and the state of conservation of the sculpture. With this aim in mind, this research highlights the results of a study carried out in situ at elemental scale, by portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, on the occasion of the recent restoration of the monument promoted by the municipality of San Ferdinando.

Sowmeya Sathiyamani, Mathieu Tillier, Naïm Vanthieghem, Claudia Colini
Leafing through time: Ink Analysis of the longest Qur’ān on Papyrus

The fragments preserved at the Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Hamburg, under the shelfmark P. Hamb. Arab. 68 are, to date, the longest and oldest excerpt of extant Qurʾān on papyrus. The fragments contain the Sura 2 in its entirety, written over seven bifolia originally sewed in a single quire. The writing incorporates the use of diacritical dots as well as markers indicating the ends of verses and text. Three of the seven folios were analysed to determine the inks used in writing the texts, the dots and the markers. The results indicate that the text was written with a carbon-based ink characterised by the presence of trace amounts of copper, possibly due to impurities in the water or the use of a copper or bronze inkwell. The diacritical dots completing the text were penned using the same ink while a different carbon ink, without copper, was used for the decorative elements of the text.

Olivier Bonnerot, Leah Mascia
Scribes and Writing Practices in Egypt's Ala Veterana Gallica: A Preliminary Study of Inks from a Military Roll

This article reports on the preliminary study of the inks from a military roll belonging to the archive of the veteran (Lucius) Iulius Serenus, dated to 179 CE. The papyrus contains receipts for payments for hay for soldiers of the ala veterana Gallica, and features different writing hands and inks of various appearances. The analysis using a combination of infrared reflectography and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, revealed that the inks are carbon-based, but also contain varying amounts of copper and calcium depending on the writing hand and the section of the roll. These results shed light on the development and diversity of ink production and use in Egypt from the late second century CE in the context of the Roman army.

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