IMEKO Event Proceedings Search

Page 13 of 936 Results 121 - 130 of 9356

Erica Sonaglia, Maria Paola Bracciale, Maria Laura Santarelli
Recycled bacterial nanocellulose membranes as novel green gels for the cleaning of cultural heritage surfaces

The removal of extraneous materials without changing artifacts original properties and appearance is a crucial aspect in the cleaning of cultural heritage. In this scenario, gels proved to be useful thanks to solvent retention and its controlled release on surfaces. In the past, synthetic polymer-derived gels attracted interest thanks to their good performance. However, in recent years, nanotechnologies and green chemical approaches have created great interest also in restoration and conservation applications. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the possibility to use bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) as a green gel material in cleaning operations. Recycled BNC, a by-product from the fermented beverage Kombucha, is used, which represents an innovative application. Purified by-products are investigated by means of different analytical techniques to characterize the chemical structure, crystallinity, microstructure, thermal behaviour, tensile behaviour, water retention capacity (WRC) and organic solvent retention capacity (OSRC). Materials show good mechanical behaviour, diffuse nanodimension and high WRC and OSRC. A selected BNC gel is used in tests on the removal of wax, one of the most widespread deposits of dirt on different surfaces. The experiment demonstrates cleaning efficiency for removing beeswax after one hour and a weak removal of microcrystalline wax, showing BNC s potentiality as a bio-based, bio-degradable and renewable gel.

Cecilia Giorgi, Marilena Cozzolino, Vincenzo Gentile, Paolo Mauriello
Unveiling the Hidden Past: exploring the historical evolution of Borbona (Rieti, Italy) through archaeological surveys and geophysical prospections

The research project aims to uncover the unknown territory and trace its origins. It s conducted by the ISPC CNR to study the historical and archaeological context of Borbona (Rieti, Italy) with the collaboration of the Department of Agricultural Environmental and Food Sciences (University of Molise) for the geophysical prospections. Despite the limited historical and archaeological studies on Borbona, unexpected discoveries emerged during the research. Through various activities, including surveys and analysis of findings, the project has identified ancient habitation areas and significant Roman architectural fragments. The research seeks to transmit the history and culture of Borbona to future generations, fostering a sense of belonging. Protecting historical heritage and areas at archaeological risk, enhancing and promoting existing cultural assets, represent fundamental actions to increase the country s attractiveness in the present and preserve its identity in the future.

Joel Aldrighettoni, Barbara Marana, Maria Grazia D'Urso
War-scapes testimonial gradient: a multi-criteria approach as a proactive tool for choosing future practices of enhancement

The vastness of the material permanences of the Great War within contemporary landscapes imposes on the stakeholders that want to take care of them the need to identify new operational tools capable to calibrate a map of intervention priorities. This contribution presents the elaboration of a methodological approach capable of dealing with the complexity of this fragile heritage through a knowledge-based skeleton useful for comparing different territorial areas by assigning them different testimonial gradients with respect to the level of knowledge of specific pre-established indicators. Thanks to a multi-criteria analysis matrix based on analytical-hierarchical processes (AHP) weights and quantities are assigned to the indicators and sub-indicators under analysis thus highlighting, for each analyzed area potentialities and criticalities that become indispensable for planning future enhancement interventions. This paper presents the application of this innovative approach on the permanences of three fortified systems on the Vezzena Plateau in Trentino (Italy), along what, a hundred years ago, was the former first border line between Italy and the Austro-Hungarian Empire. This study case was sponsored by the Superintendency of the Autonomous Province of Trento that needed an analytical tool to identify on which of these three areas, currently in a state of neglect and degradation, to program future conservation and enhancement plans.

Giulia Fiorini, Maria Alessandra Tini, Francesco Montelli, Gabriele Bitelli
Comparison of two technologies in 3D surveying of Real Estate Assets and Cultural Heritage

Accurate three-dimensional (3D) data from indoor spaces holds significant importance in various fields like real estate management, industrial archaeology and Cultural Heritage. Villa Maraffa complex, located near Ravenna (Italy), served as a case study for employing and comparing advanced technology and sensors in surveying these contexts. To acquire data, the sensors used were Matterport Pro 2 and Leica RTC360. The first one, mainly developed for real estate surveys, has been chosen because of the efficiency and cost-effectiveness in generating point clouds, albeit with lower precision compared to the Leica RTC360 Laser Scanner, the other sensor employed in this study. The focus of the paper is on assessing the point cloud s quality, with an analysis of the Matterport data, including global and specific evaluations. Potential issues like incomplete data and misalignment are identified by comparing coordinates from the Leica scanner. The results are examined to find an optimal solution for a prompt, precise, and well-timed survey, enabling a complete digital reconstruction of the object.

Alessandro Spadaro, Filiberto Chiabrando, Lorenzo Teppati Losé
3D metric Survey of the Mezzagnone Arab bath. From point clouds to 2D drawings and parametric model

The presented work reports the results of a multiscale and multi-sensors 3D metric survey achieved on the Arab Bath of Mezzagnone, an archaeological site in Sicily (Italy). Aerial and terrestrial techniques were combined to obtain detailed documentation of the selected asset and to explore the latest advancements in the archaeologicalheritage documentation domain. Specifically, the integration of Uncrewed Aerial Vehicles (UAV) photogrammetry using both nadir and oblique acquisitions, along with Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) technology, was used for detailed documentation of the whole site.The aim of the research consists in obtaining a basis for documentation, study, restoration projects, and public promotion through the creation of a 3D model of the site, traditional 2D drawings, digital orthoimages, and a parametric model of the studied object. In the work, the followed pipeline from data acquisition to the final results will be described with the evaluation and validation of the achieved accuracy.

Evdokia Tema, Italo Maria Muntoni
Absolute dating of three ancient kilns excavated at Canosa di Puglia through archaeomagnetism

Absolute dating techniques can offer important information about the chronological framework of archaeological findings mainly in the case of rescue excavations where the time and the resources for extended archaeological investigations are not available. In this study we present the dating results of three ancient kilns excavated near Canosa di Puglia, discovered during the construction of a new road. Archaeomagnetic investigation was carried out on 24 oriented in situ samples that allowed the determination of the direction of the Earth s magnetic field at the time of the kilns last firing. The obtained results show stable remanent magnetization and well-defined mean archaeomagnetic directions. Comparison of the results with the geomagnetic reference Secular Variation curves available for Italy show that the two kilns were abandoned contemporaneously and no later than the first half of the VI century AD while the third kiln could have still been in use till the VII century AD. Such results are in good agreement with the available archaeological evidence and show that most probably there was an important workshop in the area used for at least a couple of centuries.

Noemi Orazi, Eva Pietroni, Fulvio Mercuri, Daniele Ferdani, Enzo D'Annibale, Giovanni Caruso, Diego Ronchi, Stefano Paoloni, Ugo Zammit
Thermal texturing for ancient codices 4D exploration

In this work the main results obtained in the framework of the Codex 4D project have been presented and discussed. In particular, pulsed thermography (PT) and RGB photogrammetry have been combined to obtain a 4D virtual representation of some ancient codes. The aim is to facilitate the end-user experience, giving the possibility to explore subsurface elements, detected by PT, in a 3D virtual model.

Rocco Cancelliere, Leonardo Severini, Eleonora Kratter Thaler, Claudia Mazzuca, Vittoria Guglielmi, Patrizia Mussini, Laura Micheli
Gellan gum hydrogels as such and ionic-liquid doped as modulable micro-invasive tools for cultural heritage studies

Rigid Gellan gel, composed of Gellan gum and calcium acetate, is known to be biocompatible and capable of absorbing water-soluble compounds present on fragile artwork. Moreover, when implemented on screen printed electrodes, it can result in a device providing both absorption and in situ, very fast electroanalytical detection of electroactive species of interest for cultural heritage researchers. In this application its properties and performances could be also modulated by doping with ionic liquids (ILs), an attractive family of all-ionic media, consisting of molecular salts with low melting points. In this preliminary investigation, a series of absorbing conductive materials based on Gellan hydrogel, as such and doped with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium methanesulfonate in various amounts, are paired with screen printed sensors and tested as tools for the voltammetric (cyclic voltammetry CV and/or differential pulse voltammetry DPV) detection of a red-orange dye, Lawsone, which is found in the leaves of the henna plant (Lawsonia Inermis) and has been used since the time of Ancient Egypt to dye wool and silk.

Elodie Granget, Ocson Reginald Cocen, Mahdieh Shakoorioskooie, Zhan Qianru, Marian Nida Lumongsod-Thompson, Anders Kaestner, David Mannes, Laura Brambilla
Development of a Quantitative Multimodal Imaging Technique for In-situ Study of Iron Archaeological Artefacts

This paper presents the methodology and preliminary results of the SNSF Sinergia project CORINT. The project aims to elucidate the corrosion phenomena of iron objects in various porous media, in particular iron archaeological artefacts (IAAs) in soil. A multimodal quantitative imaging technique, combining neutron and X-ray computed tomography (NX-CT), is being developed to study corrosion processes non-destructively. The methodology involves the registration and fusion of neutron and X-ray tomogram data (i.e., using a bivariate histogram), followed by segmentation using Gaussian mixture model (GMM) clustering. Two IAAs, with sample names Vrac C and BdC1, were imaged. Random cross-sections of these samples were also analyzed using optical microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and SEM-EDS to characterize and cross-correlate the corrosion layers with the NX-CT results. This research provides insights into the corrosion state of IAAs and offers a non-destructive approach to studying corrosion processes in porous media. This will bring benefits to cultural heritage preservation, and to the study of the long-term corrosion behaviors of modern iron structures, steel in concrete, and nuclear waste disposal plans.

Massimo Rippa, Vito Pagliarulo, Chiara Saltarelli, Maria Rosaria Vigorito, Gianluca Coda, Pasquale Mormile, Andrea Carpentieri, Melania Paturzo
Optical NDT supporting the restoration of a marble sculpture on the facade of the Gesù Nuovo church in Naples

The study focuses on an angel marble sculpture, placed on the central portal of the Gesu Nuovo church in Naples. The non-destructive and non-invasive optical techniques used were Active Thermography (AT) and 3D scanning. The measurements were carried out before and after the restoration of the marble sculpture, consisting in the consolidation of some disintegrated areas and in the removal of both black crusts and biodeteriogens, present in various areas of the sculpture.
AT images provide a map of the structural homogeneity of the investigated areas, measuring the thermal response, which result altered where the degradation products are located (crusts and/or biological patinas). 3D scanning, on the other hand, allows obtaining a 3D model of the entire sculpture and measuring any structural variations due to the restoration on a millimeter scale.

Page 13 of 936 Results 121 - 130 of 9356