## IMEKO Event Proceedings Search

Page 9 of 912 Results 81 - 90 of 9113

**Technical Research and Uncertainty Evaluation of the City Gas Energy Measurement**

Based on the specific situation of city gas in Beijing, the technical scheme of city gas energy measurement for different users was proposed in this paper. Combined with the experimental data, the sources of the uncertainty of city gas energy measurement were analyzed from the aspects of volume flow, calorific value per unit volume, integration method and other relevant factors under the measurement reference conditions.Meanwhile, the uncertainty of city gas energy measurement was evaluated. This study puts forward the technical scheme and uncertainty evaluation of natural gas energy measurement for different users, which has certain reference significance for promoting the implementation of city gas energy measurement in China.

**Talking about the influence of pressure deviation on the measurement results of natural gas flowmeter**

Natural gas is a kind of clean energy. In the process of natural gas flowmeter verification, pressure, as a key parameter of flowmeter verification, has a direct impact on the verification result of natural gas flowmeter. In order to study the influence of pressure deviation on the verification results, the theoretical calculation method was used to analyze the influence of pressure deviation on the verification results, and then the natural gas flow test method was used for verification. Finally, the control measures and suggestions to ensure the accurate and reliable pressure were given.

**A Software Technique for Oil-Water Two-Phase Flow Measurement: CapsNet with Multi-task Learning**

Flow parameters measurement is beneficial for understanding oil-water two-phase flow. Due to the changeable flow structures of oil-water two-phase flow, the prediction of superficial velocity of oil-water two-phase flow in large diameter pipes is still a challenging problem. In this paper, a novel soft measurement technique based on Capsule Network (CapsNet) is developed to predict the superficial velocity. Firstly, a vertical upward oil-water two-phase flow experiment in a 125 mm ID pipe was conducted, and response signals at different flow conditions were obtained by a vertical multi-electrode array (VMEA) conductance sensor. Then, in order to increase the number of samples without losing information, a new data pre-processing (1D-to-2D) technique is used. Finally, a novel multi-task learning network based on CapsNet is designed to predict the flow pattern and superficial velocity of each phase. To verify the advancedness of the method, we compared the proposed network with its variations and other competitive networks. The results suggest the proposed network achieves the best performance for prediction of flow pattern and superficial velocity. The proposed method presents great potential for handling high-dimensional, time-varying and nonlinear problems in multiphase flow.

**Measurement of Oil-Water Flows by Conductance Cross?Correlation Flowmeter with Center Body in a Small Pipe**

Accurate measurement of oil-water flows is a significant issue to oilfield water injection development. In this paper, the parameter measurement of vertical oil-water flows is established by conductance sensors with inner-outer multi-height ring electrodes. Firstly, the dynamic experiment of vertical upward oil-water flows is carried out, and a high-speed camera is used to capture flow structures in each working condition. Based on the output conductance signals and the images from the high-speed camera, the experimental flow patterns (bubble flow, slug flow, very fine bubble flow and transition flow) are identified. And the relationship of mixture velocity to cross-correlation velocity and water cut is established. On this basis, the drift velocity models under different flow patterns are constructed by combining the water holdup calculated by Maxwell equation. The results show that the measurement of mixture velocity of oil-water flows is satisfactory. And high precision superficial velocity measurements of four different flow patterns are achieved.

**Measurement of Gas-Liquid Flows in Vertical Pipes Using Turbine Flow Meter and Conductance Sensor**

Although turbine flow meters (TFM) have made good progress in measuring flow with accurate response characteristics in single-phase flow, TFM combined with other sensors to measure two-phase flow is still a difficult and hot issue. Due to the leakage after the collection, the flow state change and slippage between the gas and liquid phases in the pipeline after the diversion are complicated, and all these factors have a significant impact on the TFM modelling. Therefore, the meter factor models of the TFM with diverter in two-phase flows have not been thoroughly solved. Thus, this study mainly investigates the performance of TFM in gas-liquid two-phase flows combined with the rotating electric field conductance sensor (REFCS). Among them, the gas holdup is implemented through the REFCS. We examine three two-phase flows TFM models including mass model, momentum model and torque model, and analyse slip ratio, an essential parameter in the meter factor models. Subsequently, based on model tests, the evaluation finds that the Chisholm slip ratio model combined with the torque model achieved the best accuracy. Consequently, the average absolute deviation (AAD) and average absolute percentage deviation (AAPD) of total flow rate are 1.23 m³/d and 7.69 %.

**Research on Countermeasures of Internal fouling in Turbine Flowmeter**

Turbine flowmeters are widely used to measure volume flow and total volume of low viscosity gas in closed pipelines due to their advantages of high precision, good repeatability and insensitivity to peak value, especially in natural gas distribution stations and metering institutions are more commonly used. However,there are rotating parts inside them, which are easily affected by factors such as dust, grease, and impurities. Based on flowmeter verification test data and years of experience in standard device management, this paper conducts research from four aspects of fouling source control, fouling blocking, fouling cleaning and fouling prevention, discusses the feasibility scheme to solve the internal fouling problem of turbine flowmeters and forms a complete set of fouling control, treatment, blocking and prevention methods.

**Research and application of ultrasonic gas flow meter performance on-line audit**

Ultrasonic flow meter has become the mainstream measuring instrument in the natural gas trade because of its advantages of large measuring range, small pressure loss and high measurement accuracy. In the measurement of natural gas with high pressure and large flow, the advantage of ultrasonic flow meter is particularly obvious. Ultrasonic flow meter based on transit-time method can measure the speed of sound and the flow velocity of fluid at the same time. With the continuous improvement of on-site monitoring and diagnosis technology of ultrasonic flow meter, the on-line audit of flow meter based on speed of sound checking has attracted extensive attention. According to AGA No.10 report, the on-line audit based on speed of sound checking was carried out with a 4-path ultrasonic flow meter used in a natural gas station was studied. The studies showed that within 2 years, the signal quality indicators of the ultrasonic flowmeter were basically the same, the variation of flow velocity deviation was within ± 0.5 %, and the variation of the speed of sound deviation of acoustic path was within ± 0.03 %. With the comparison of the real flow calibration, it could be concluded that the metering performance of the flowmeter was stable and reliable, but the installation conditions should be checked to see if they meet the requirements. The results showed that the method of on-line audit can effectively monitor the performance of ultrasonic flowmeter and could be a powerful supplement to the real flow calibration.

**Development of Movable Testing Device for Gas Flow Equipping with the Critical Flow Venturi Nozzles**

In order to meet the requirements of rapid on-site verification / calibration of flow meters in our country’s natural gas measurement field, we have jointly developed a movable gas flow testing device equipping with critical flow venturi nozzle. According to actual needs the device will be used in the different lab.In order to ensure the uncertainty of the device can meet the requirements of customers,the designer should fully demonstrates and considers the design in selecting the most suitable temperature and pressure sensor, and the processing of calculus.From technical point, we should control the possible impact on the measurement results of the movablegas flow testing device caused by environmental changes.

**Investigation of the Correction Factor for Ultrasonic Flow Meters**

The main source of errors while applying modern ultrasonic flow measurement principle is the deviation of the actual velocity profile of the measured flow from the calculated one. If the velocity profile is known, the corresponding correction can be evaluated and considered during calibration. However, in practice, the distribution of velocities in the cross section of the pipeline differs from the theoretical one, which leads to errors of hydrodynamic origin.To determine the flow rate of the measuring medium, it is necessary to transform the flow velocity averaged along the acoustic path to the velocity averaged for the cross section of the flow meter. To do this, use the hydrodynamic correction factor, which is a function of the Reynolds number. The inaccuracy of this factor is the largest component of the total error of ultrasonic flowmeters. This is due to the fact that velocity distribution (and hence the hydrodynamic factor) use dependences obtained on the assumption that measuring flow is axisymmetric and the trajectory of the ultrasonic beam lies in the plane passing through the pipeline axis. Nevertheless, most industrial flow media have a distorted profile due to installation effects, which are an integral part of any hydraulic system. As a result, the determined average flow velocity does not correspond to the real one. Therefore, the problem of studying the influence of flow non-symmetry on the value of the hydrodynamic correction factor is relevant. The effect of distortion of the velocity profile on the measurement results of ultrasonic flowmeters was evaluated using theoretical dependences describing non-symmetric velocity profiles. For this purpose, functions based on the power law of velocity distribution in smooth pipes with the imposition of some influence function, which depends on the radial and angular distances from the observation point to the pipeline axis, were used. However, some dependencies can only be applied to approximate real flow profiles.For velocity profiles that do not have axial symmetry, the only correct way to accurately estimate the flow rate is to reconstruct 2D velocity field using algebraic techniques. The implementation of one of these methods was performed based on the inverse Abel’s transform.For velocity profiles that do not have rotational symmetry around the axis of the pipeline, the value of the measured velocity will depend on the angle of orientation of the measuring plane relative to the diametrical plane of the flow meter. The calculation of the actual average flow velocity in the cross section of the meter was obtained from a specific mathematical dependencies describing velocity distribution by integration technique.This research allows us to conclude that it is possible to calculate the performance of ultrasonic flowmeters under conditions of distorted non-symmetric flows at Re > 104 with sufficient accuracy using computational hydrodynamics, integration based on Abel’s transform, methods of theoretical research and mathematical processing.

**Laboratory and Field Validation of a New Coriolis Metering Concept for Better Measurement Uncertainty, Reliability and Process Insight**

Coriolis mass flowmeters are widely accepted in various industries for the great performance of density and mass flow rate measurements. Not only do they play a critical role in O&G custody transfer applications, but also an increasingly important role in addressing the new challenges and applications related to the energy transition where the highest accuracy and reliability is also required. Analogous to multi-beam Ultrasonic flowmeters, a new measuring concept based on Coriolis principle has been developed with a metering system that consists of two individual Coriolis meters arranged in parallel for the incoming flow in the system. There are numerous advantages of this arrangement, among which reducing measurement uncertainty, increasing reliability and gaining greater process insight are the most significant ones. The statistic theory has shown that for a total measurement equally divided by two sub-measurements of two independent measuring devices, the measurement uncertainty caused by random errors is reduced by a factor of square root of 2 for the combined total measurement. This rule applies to the Zero Point and repeatability performance of the metering system. Taking the advantage of independently measuring the same or similar fluid parameters twice, the measurement reliability is enhanced by cross-checking the two sets of measured parameters. For certain special cases, such as transient disturbance of entrained gas that often exists under real process conditions, the corresponding negative impact can even be mitigated or eliminated by utilizing the undisturbed measured parameter set from the two. The spacial arrangement of the two Coriolis meters makes it useful to monitor the measured fluid parameters such as two sets of densities, flows and temperatures for obtaining the knowledge of the special distribution of fluid parameters, gaining greater process insight.A critical step has been the validation of the theoretical advantages in third-party laboratories and in the field. A test was done for the Zero Point stability of the metering system under various temperatures, pressures and viscosities at NEL using the EPAT facility. The measurement results suggested that the Zero Point deviations of the two Coriolis meters followed a random probability and tended to cancel each other to certain degree, leading to a reduced Zero Point deviation for the complete metering system. Repeatability and reproducibility tests were done both at NEL EPAT and at Euroloop oil rigs with provers, showing good and consistent results. Recognizing most hydrocarbon markets trade on a volumetric basis rather than mass, the advantages the design brings towards density measurement are discussed and measurement data is presented across varying fluid densities and viscosities. In step with the growing importance of gaseous fluids to the evolving energy markets, the influence the novel design has on performance in gas applications is described and measurement data in gases is also presented. Furthermore, an interesting phenomenon has been captured during the flow stabilization phase before proving at Euroloop that transient disturbance of gas bubbles could be present, and very often disturbed only one meter at the same time, which enables the possibility to remediate the effect of transient disturbances. The same phenomenon took place in field tests of the metering system, indicating the high probability of the occurrence. In this paper, the laboratories data from the NEL EPAT rig, Euroloop rig, pigsar rig, and H&D Fitzgerald as well as the data from field applications are presented and analysed to validate the theoretical analysis.

Page 9 of 912 Results 81 - 90 of 9113