IMEKO Event Proceedings Search

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T. Morioka
Performance evaluation test of Coriolis flow meters for hydrogen metering at high pressure

This paper describes the results of performance evaluation of Coriolis flow meters from various manufacturers in high-pressure hydrogen actual flow using a calibration system with critical flow Venturi nozzles as a reference. The calibration system consisting of five nozzles was developed to calibrate the flowmeters by high-pressure, high-flow-rate hydrogen gas. The performance evaluation test of the Coriolis flowmeters wasconducted at maximum pressure of 70 MPa, gas temperature of 0 °C and -40 °C, and flow rate range from 0.5 kg/min to 3.0 kg/min. It was confirmed that the instrumental error of most of the DUTs tested in this paper was within ± 2.0 %, although the instrumental error tended to be slightly larger at -40 °C in the small flow rate range.

H.-B. Böckler, M. de Huu, R. Maury, S. Schmelter, M. D. Schakel, O. Büker
Metrology infrastructure for high-pressure gas and liquified hydrogen flows

This paper gives an overview of the Joint Research Project (JRP) 20IND11 “Metrology infrastructure for high-pressure gas and liquified hydrogen flows” (MetHyInfra), the challenges to tackle and the strategy to deal with these challenges. It will outline how this project will lead to a state of art for hydrogen quantity measurement. The paper is connected to four other FLOMEKO submissions, which deal with the latest outputs from the project.

F. Luo, R. Gan, P. J. Zhao, J. Zhou, M. T. Xiong, W. Lu
Repeatability of the master meter method in calibrating compressed hydrogen dispenser

Hydrogen fuel cell technology is an important development direction of clean energy vehicles, which has the characteristics of zero pollution and renewability. As a key role in the commercial operation of hydrogen energy vehicles, the accuracy of the hydrogen filling quantity directly affects trade fairness and market promotion. The master meter method is generally used for the flow calibration of the existing compressed hydrogen dispenser, tin other words, high-precision Coriolis mass flowmeter is connected in series to the hydrogen filling pipeline on site, and the calibration is completed in the actual hydrogen filling process. In practice, it was found that compared with CNG, the compressed hydrogen filling process was added with a pre-charging and pressure maintaining procedure. If the model of the master meter and flowmeter in the compressed hydrogen filling dispenser to be calibrated are different, the repeatability of the calibration result will be poor. It is preliminarily concluded by experiments and analysis that the error is caused by the response of Coriolis mass flowmeter of different types to the single pulse flow during pre-charging and pressure maintaining procedure, which affects the repeatability of calibration of master meter method. Finally, it is suggested that the mass accumulated in the stage of the pre-charging pressure maintaining should not be included in the error calculation when the master meter method is used to calibrate compressed hydrogen dispenser.

B. Mickan, H.-B. Böckler, D. Schumann, J. van der Grinten
Transferability of calibration results obtained with conventional gases for application with hydrogen

In the field of gas transport, the de-carbonisation of the energy supply is forcing the exchange of natural gas with hydrogen, either in mixtures or even pure hydrogen. Therefore, there is an increasing need to have reliable information about the behaviour of existing metering technologies with such hydrogen enriched gases or pure hydrogen. On the other hand, the availability of testing and calibration infrastructures for hydrogen has been very limited so far. A fast approach to close this gap is the usage of scaling procedures to transfer the calibration results gathered at facilities with conventional gases to field applications with hydrogen.The paper will introduce the scaling models applied at PTB for turbine gas meters (TM), rotary piston gas meters (RM) and differential pressure meters (DPM) to ensure transferability of calibration results obtained mainly with air and natural gas, and occasionally with nitrogen or water. All applied models are based on the Reynolds number as the dominant scaling parameter and include extensions to describe secondary effects if necessary.

M. MacDonald, N. Glen, M. A. de Huu, R. Maury, S. Rønneberg, A. Wiener
Measurement uncertainty tool for HRS dispensers

Verifications of hydrogen refuelling stations have shown that variations in the station design and operation can greatly influence accuracy at the dispenser, and there are sources of error unrelated to the flow meter which if uncorrected make it difficult to achieve the accuracy requirements of OIML R-139. To improve dissemination of knowledge in this area, an interactive measurement uncertainty tool has been developed which allows the user to specify a range of different station configurations and filling scenarios to estimate the resulting errors at the dispenser. This is intended to serve as a basis for HRS manufacturers to improve HRS designs with respect to billing accuracy and to assist notified bodies in understanding uncertainty contributions from an HRS and the corrections required. This paper describes the initial version of the HRS uncertainty tool, explaining the inputs required from the user, the sources of measurement uncertainty considered, how the flow meter behaviour is modelled, and which calculations are implemented.

Dr. C. Mills, Dr. G. Chinello
Flow Measurement in Support of Carbon Capture, Utilisation and Storage

Carbon Capture, Utilisation and Storage (CCUS) is a key United Kingdom Government strategy for reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions to combat the potentially catastrophic effects of climate change. The UK aims to capture and store 10 million tonnes of CO2 each year by 2030. Across the entire CCUS value chain, each of the stages require accurate measurement of CO2 at temperatures, pressures, flow rates and fluid phases that must be validated through a credible traceability chain for flow. This traceability chain would provide the underpinning confidence in meter performance, financial and fiscal transactions and, critically, environmental compliance. The UK-adopted version of the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) has specified an uncertainty value for CO2 flow measurement that must be adhered to. Accordingly, the provision of accurate and traceable flow measurement of CO2 in the UK and internationally will be essential for the successful operation of CCUS Unfortunately, there are currently no CO2 flow measurement facilities in the world that are capable of traceable flow calibrations of gas phase, liquid/dense phase and supercritical phase CO2 that replicate real-world CCUS conditions. The absence of traceable CO2 gas and liquid flow measurement facilities and accompanying national or international flow measurement standards could seriously impede the widespread deployment of CCUS. These significant barriers could potentially jeopardise the successful implementation of CCUS projects worldwide, not least because these will be governed by legislation and environmental regulations requiring traceable measurement.This paper presents an overview of the current traceability chain for CO2 flow measurement in the UK and globally. Current challenges will be detailed along with potential solutions and opportunities for the measurement community.

R. Maury, M.A. De Huu, M. MacDonald, P. T. Neuvonen, A. Wiener
Secondary standard for hydrogen refuelling station verification: Method and requirements

The requirements for the refuelling process to minimise overheating and overfilling have a considerable influence on HRS design and have a substantial impact on prospective fuelling performance. Type approval of HRS is a complex, expensive and time-consuming process whereas on-field inspection should be quick, cost efficient, reliable, and easy to perform. This paper describes a secondary flow standard which could be used to meet those objectives. Through the implementation of secondary standard verification, type approval time willdrastically decrease from 2 days of testing (using the primary standard) to half a day. Thus, decreasing operation time and cost which will appeal to investors (OPEX reduction). This will pave the way for the development of new hydrogen infrastructure to facilitate the increase in hydrogen cars.

Yongsheng Zhang, Yanjun Liu
Development of Dynamic Response Characteristics Calibration Device for Liquid Flowmeter

In order to study the dynamic response characteristics of liquid flowmeter, a dynamic flow device based on superposition principle is established. The device generates the main flow through the screw pump; The positive step or negative step flow component is generated by opening or closing the high-speed solenoid valve; and the Sinusoidal pulsating flow component is formed by the sinusoidal mechanism. The real step flow or pulsating flow can be formed by superimposing the step flow component or pulsating flow component on the main flow. The system is equipped with a weighing system to measure the average flow. The test shows that the step flow component can change from 4 L/min to 20 L/min, and the uncertainty of step amplitude is 5 % (k = 2); The frequency of pulsating flow can change from 5 Hz to 50 Hz, the amplitude can change from 5 L/min to 20 L/min, and the uncertainty of instantaneous flow is 0.5 % (k = 2). The device can be used to calibrate and evaluate the time constant, frequency response characteristics and mean flow error of flowmeter, and is expected to improve the accuracy of unsteady flow measurement.

M. A. de Huu, R. Maury, M. MacDonald, S. Rønneberg, A. Wiener
Key comparison of gravimetric standards for hydrogen refuelling stations

There are currently several mobile gravimetric standards for testing and calibrating hydrogen refuelling stations in operation. These standards are compliant for fuel delivery to light-duty vehicles according to the SAE J2601 protocol and provide measurement uncertainties that are low enough to use them for type-approval testing according to OMIL R139 recommendation. An international field comparison under real conditions is requiredto ensure a complete acceptance of test results by operators and notified bodies. In this paper, we will present details on a currently running comparison to settle this issue, and how it differsfrom standard comparisons. Specific strategies had to be adopted to make the experimental results consistent and comparable. The refuelling operating conditions can affect the outcome from the comparison and need to be taken into account. All these points are being addressed in this paper and are part of the comparison protocol. The aim is that in the end, based on the comparison results and the applied strategy, participants will be able to declare certified measurement capabilities to the BIPM.

M. A. de Huu, R. Maury
Design and calibration of critical flow Venturi nozzles for high-pressure hydrogen applications

In this paper, we present the strategy behind the design and manufacture of sets of Critical Flow Venturi Nozzles (CFVN) with various sizes, shapes and surface roughnesses, as well as their dimensional calibration to test the applicability of ISO 9300 for high-pressure hydrogen aplications. Some of the built nozzles and nozzle holders will be used for high-pressure measurements with hydrogen and underwent a baseline metrological check at lower pressure using inert gases to ensure that their low-pressure characteristics are known before performing the measurements with high-pressure hydrogen. Furthermore, all the nozzles are being dimensionally calibrated using an ultra-precise 3D coordinate measuring machine and will yield a database of reference data for these nozzles. As there are currently no test rigs with traceable standards that are able to directly perform the calibration of CFVN with high-pressure hydrogen, an alternative method needed to be developed and a traceability scheme with an expected uncertainty around 1 % using a calibrated Coriolis meter with hydrogen is presented.

Page 1 of 907 Results 1 - 10 of 9067