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P. Bilio Markasioti, George Kritikakis, Antonios Vafidis, Nikos Papadopoulos
Seismic refraction tomography and multichannel analysis of surface waves for imaging offshore Cultural Heritage in very shallow water: Results from a synthetic study and real data

In archaeology, applied geophysics helps to discover new findings of our hiden cultural heritage. However, these methods have been particularly developed in terrestrial environments, leaving the shallow marine ones almost unexplored. This paper examines the effectiveness of Multichannel Analysis Surface Waves (MASW) and Seismic Refraction Tomography (SRT) οn imaging submerged and buried antiquities in a very shallow marine environment. For this purpose, synthetic seismic data sets were created to examine the optimum parameters for the most efficient visualization and interpretation of shallow underwater buried man made targets. The modeling results outlined that targets wider than 0.5m are reconstructed both with the SRT and the MASW methods, provided that they are buried close to the sea bottom. In addition, short spread of the receivers with the MASW provided the most satisfactory outcome concerning the location of the submerged targets. In general the modeling results are quite encouraging and together with the succesfull application of MASW method in real data can form the basis for establishing the applicability of these geophysical methods in mapping submerged archaeological structures in shallow water environments.

Tanzil Ahmmed, Cristina Galacho, José Quaresma, Patrícia Moita, A. R. Silva
Study of historical mortars from the Roman villa of Frielas (Loures, Portugal)

The Roman villa of Frielas is an archaeological site from 3rd – 6th century AD located in Loures, Portugal. The villa is on excavation since 1997. A total of eighteen mortar samples were collected from the different structures of the villa with different functional uses (render, filler, and floor) and analyzed by a multi-analytical approach. The results revealed a similar composition of binder, while differences in aggregates allowed to establish several groups. Raw materials and production technologies were significant. Results were discussed as evidence of manufacturing techniques, production technologies, and provenance of possible raw materials. The information was analyzed to understand if historic recipes from ancient Roman treatises as described by Vitruvius, were followed in the manufacturing process, or if traditional formulae were adjusted and adapted to meet a specific demand or due to resource constraints.

Chiara Tuccio, Francesco Armetta, Maria Luisa Saladino
Preliminary investigations of the action of nanostructured materials for the conservation of fresco paintings in high-humid environments

A preliminary study on the protective effect of nanostructured materials developed for the conservation of fresco paintings sited in high humidity environments is here reported. The study has been performed on mock-up samples prepared on the base of a non-invasive investigation performed on the frescos of the complex St. Mary of the Cave in Marsala (Trapani, Italy). The mock-up samples simulate both the stone support and the mortar preparation as well as the fresco painted with the same kind of pigments found in two of fresco paintings. Some nanostructured materials such as nano-sized fluorosilanes in water, nanosilica in water, nanolime and their mixtures have been tested evaluating the effect on the colour appearance and on surface properties.

Marica Liano, Tiziana E. De Lillo, Annarosa Mangone, Alessandro Monno, Rocco Laviano, Stefano Roascio, Gioacchino Tempesta, Giacomo Eramo
Diagnostic investigation on a Sorel and Portland cement boiserie at Palazzo Fizzarotti (1850-1908, Bari)

This paper reports the results of the diagnostic investigation conducted on the "boiserie" of the Rococo Hall at Palazzo Fizzarotti (1850-1908) in Bari. The boiserie is an artifact made of faux marble with included seminato elements and characterized by the presence of assembly plastering.
The study aimed to identify its constituent materials, reconstruct the production technique, and understand its conservation state to carry out a critical restoration work which respected the boiserie from a material, historical and aesthetic point of view.
Non-invasive analysis took place in situ (colorimetry, pXRF, UVF) and in laboratory (OM, SEM-EDS, µRaman, XRPD).
The results revealed the use of Sorel cement for the surface mortar layer in the faux marble elements (including the assemblage plastering) and the use of Portland cement in the "seminato" elements and the plastering depth layer, other than the technological aspects and the forms of the degradation.

Romina Strangis, Mauro Francesco La Russa, Andrea Macchia, Giorgia Salatino, Anna Arcudi, Raffaella Mancuso, Chiara Biribicchi
New green solvents for cleaning and conservation of Cultural Heritage: Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs)

Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs) are a relatively new class of unconventional green solvents. They are obtained by mixing two or more components, a hydrogen bond donor (HBD) and a hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA), which form a liquid at room temperature due to their lower melting point compared to the starting materials. DESs are characterized by their low toxicity, high environmental compatibility, non flammability, and non-volatility. While DESs have found applications in various fields such as organometallic chemistry and pharmaceutical production, their potential use in restoration of cultural heritage has not been explored until now. This research project aims to synthesize DESs and investigate their effectiveness as green products for restoration practices.
The results obtained from the first case studies highlight the promising use of DESs as green solvents and biocides, able to effectively removing the products of alteration and degradation of Cultural Heritage.

Luisa Ammirati, Bianca Magliocchetti, Simone Berto, Emanuel Demetrescu
GP-NEP: a prototype of an assistant for non-experts in photogrammetric survey

Photogrammetry is a widely used survey technique for creating Digital Replicas, but its application requires some expertise in survey planning and execution that sometimes can represent a challenge, especially for non-expert users. This paper presents GP-NEP, a prototype tool designed to address this task. GP-NEP aims to guide non-expert users through the intricacies of photogrammetric surveying, helping to understand the key factors that influence the quality of the final Digital Replicas. By employing an interactive questionnaire-based approach, GP-NEP assists users in selecting suitable equipment and optimizing the survey process based on the complexity of the object being captured. The tool incorporates a complexity index assessment useful to evaluate the complexity of the object. At the end of the process GP-NEP generates customized reports, providing recommendations and insights. Through a comparative case study, concerning the 3D survey of two marble artifacts from the Roman river port of Seripola, it has been possible to test the effectiveness of GP-NEP.

Michela Ricca, Raffaella Greca, Carlo Riente, Donatella Barca, Luciana Randazzo, Silvestro A. Ruffolo, Mauro F. La Russa
Diagnostic study and efficiency evaluation of treatments against rising damp and salts crystallization in ornamental stones: the case of the green stone sacristy washbasin in the Church of San Domenico in Cosenza (Calabria, Italy)

The presence of water in masonry, especially in confined spaces, is one of the most important causes of deterioration of stone building materials. If water is present, particularly rising damp, degradation processes such as loss of surface material, encrustations, micro-cracks, salt efflorescences, etc., may arise and be intensified. Treatment against these phenomena is therefore strongly recommended for the protection and conservation of ornamental materials and buildings in general, before their restoration. In the present work, a multi-analytical approach was employed to study the stone materials and determine their state of conservation in the washbasin of the sacristy of the Church of San Domenico in Cosenza. The results allowed us to reveal details not visible to the naked eye that was important to conduct its conservation intervention. As for the state of conservation, the integrated use of various techniques enabled the detection of phenomena generally correlated with the occurrence of water infiltration and migration which appear to affect a large part of the area in which the asset is located, causing noticeable damage. Results concerning the cleaning, consolidating, and protective treatments on the artifact are also presented.

Maria Ricciardi, Valeria Comite, Andrea Bergomi, Chiara Andrea Lombardi, Paola Fermo, Antonio Faggiano, Antonino Fiorentino, Concetta Pironti, Luana Bontempo, Federica Camin, Oriana Motta, Antonio Proto
Isotopic analysis of black crust samples from the Monza Cathedral (Italy): a preliminary study

The degradation of historical buildings surfaces through the formation of black crusts is a process mainly related to air pollution. The origin of air pollutants can be determined by measuring the stable isotope ratio of their main elements. In this study, the results obtained from the isotopic analysis of BCs taken from the historical Monza cathedral, an important monument placed in Monza, a highly polluted city of Northen Italy, are discussed. In particular, stable isotope ratios of carbon, sulphur and oxygen of two black crust samples (namely MD and MS) were measured by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectroscopy. The obtained δ13C, δ34S and δ18O values suggest that anthropogenic pollution is responsible for the formation of black crusts on the façade of this cathedral.

Gaia Sabetta, Grazia Semeraro, Florinda Notarstefano, Marta Portillo
First results of plant processing on ground stone tools: phytolith evidence and GC-MS from archaic Messapian settlements - San Vito dei Normanni and Cavallino (Puglia, Italy)

A large number of ground stone tools have been unearthed in the archaic Messapian settlements of San Vito dei Normanni - Castello d Alceste (Brindisi) and Cavallino (Lecce), in southern Puglia. The questions raised by these tools concern exploitation of food resources and distribution of productive activities within the settlements. First results of phytolith analyses conducted on ten grinding tools are presented. Quantitative and morphological analysis aimed at estimating the amount of phytoliths in the sediment, but also at identifying the types of plants used in the sites. Phytoliths indicated the nature of the vegetal processed matter, including cereals plants used for human and animal nutrition. Together with those from the analysis of organic residues already conducted at the sites these results contribute to the understanding of the food processing and dietary practices of the archaic Messapic populations.

Enrico Petritoli, Fabio Leccese
The Via Severiana and its Representation in the Tabula Peutingeriana

We will examine the route of the Via Severiana, traced in the imperial period, from a historical and technical point of view. Later we will compare it with the Tabula, which we can consider one of the first synthetic representations of general viability.

Page 3 of 936 Results 21 - 30 of 9356