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Giulia Marsili, Claudia Lamanna
Digital approaches to ancient metrology: new insights into methods and tools for measuring and designing marble in Late Antiquity

The paper deals with a particular category of production indicators, namely circular holes on Late Antique architectural sculpture. The Mediterranean-wide distribution of these graphic signs suggests that they had a defined meaning and function during the production process. A sample of marble objects from Late Antique Ravenna has been 3D digitally surveyed and analysed here as a case study. A comparative assessment of these marks suggests their identification as calliper holes. The evaluation of their positioning on the marble objects provides precise clues to their function for metrological and design purposes. Moreover, it points to a specific carving technique used during manufacture, namely the three-compass method or, alternatively, the pantograph. The chronological distribution of archaeological evidence between the 5th and 6th centuries A.D. makes it possible to link the phenomenon to the floruit of the quarries of Proconnesus and the introduction of new techniques to speed up marble working.

Federica Vacatello
Archaeological data and reliability criteria. A GIS measurement proposal for the study of the Mignone Valley

The quest for useful methods for an effective classification of the multifaceted archaeological reality represents one of the long-standing problems of research in the field, which over the last century has attempted to find valid and functional classification methods for measuring different archaeological features. While in a typological context the debate is quite heated, especially in the classification of individual archaeological objects, in a territorial context the issue is still little addressed, especially if one wonders about the provenance of the information exploited for the development of more general studies on the territory. In this sense, the ever-increasing use of GIS systems as useful tools not only for the management but also for the mathematical analysis of data imposes the need to develop new methodological solutions in order to make GIS models, deriving from territorial analyses, effective systems of archaeological analysis in which the verisimilitude of the final result does not only lie in the correct numerical calculation by the chosen algorithm but above all in the reliability value possessed by each piece of data considered for the analysis itself. The doctoral work conducted on the upper Latium territory of the Mignone Valley, aimed at reconstructing the dynamics of population and the causes of the territorial transformation that occurred here between the 4th and 15th centuries AD, led to the development of a methodological expedient that, albeit small, made it possible to measure the level of chronological and topographical reliability of each datum surveyed, thus significantly influencing the final readings.

Filippo Calcerano, Letizia Martinelli, Elena Verticchio, Luciano Cessari, Elena Gigliarelli
Bioclimatic study of Feng Shui principles in the ancient Chinese village of Chuandixia

Environmental design can play a key role in the study of historic areas as it allows the investigation of traditional settlement principles according to the Genius Loci and the reconstruction of their original functioning processes. Feng Shui is an ancient body of knowledge and practices that evolved from Chinese philosophy embodying the Chinese ecological practice to harmonise people with the environment. This study presents a methodological approach for the bioclimatic numerical analysis of the urban microclimate of Chuandixia, a small village near Beijing (China), built during the Ming era following traditional design principles of Feng Shui. ENVI-met simulation software was used to check the environmental effectiveness of the relationship between the landscape, the local climate conditions, and the morphology of the streets, dwellings, and public spaces of the village. Thanks to a better understanding of the historical settlement, this study serves as the basis to propose design solutions to improve thermal comfort and reduce energy consumption of the building units, enhancing their passive behaviour while respecting the historical, architectural, and cultural significance of the traditional landscape.

Alessandra Pecci, Luis Barba, Agustin Ortiz Butron, Jorge Blancas, Itzayana Bernal, Natalia Moragas
Archaeological prospection methodology at Teotihuacan (Mexico): study of a neighbourhood in the centre of the city

The goal of the project is to investigate the area in the center of Teotihuacan, between San Juan River, the Pyramid of the Sun and the Street of the Dead, named by Millon sectors N2E1 and N2E2, through the combined application of aerial photography with drone, topography, geophysical prospection techniques (magnetic, electric and georadar studies) to identify buried structures besides the study of chemical residues on the soil surface and the distribution of archaeological materials in selected areas, to identify human activities. The data obtained until now, suggest preliminary hypotheses about the distribution and depth of buried buildings, that should be part of a neighborhood with its components such as residential areas, workshops, temples, and squares.

Vincenzo Saverio Alfio, Domenica Costantino, Sorin Herban, Massimiliano Pepe, Alfredo Restuccia Garofalo
From TLS data into H-FEM model based on the quad-mesh: the case study of romanian church

Historical and architectural heritage assets are continuously exposed to a high risk of damage caused not only by natural events but also by poor maintenance or neglect. In order to preserve these structures, it is necessary to carry out a series of multi-level studies that provide a high level of support to all professionals working in this field. The use of appropriate geomatic techniques and instrumentation based on digital acquisition allow for the elaboration of accurate and high-performance 3D models in the various fields of study. This manuscript illustrates a methodology that, starting from the TLS survey of an architectural structure in a Romanian village, has allowed the elaboration of an accurate 3D model which was optimised and transformed into a polygonal mesh model (quad-mesh). This model representing an accurate input data in the subsequent H-FEM (Heritage Finite Element Model) analysis process.

Giulia Chellini, Saverio Giulio Malatesta, Mariflora Caruso, Paola La Torre, Paolo Rosati, Roberta Manzollino
From excavation to digital use, reconstructing and returning the past to small communities: the case of the medieval fortress of Cervara di Roma

The first mentions of the medieval fortress of Cervara di Roma date back to the year 1005. Over the centuries, it was damaged and rebuilt until it became a possession of the Colonna family. Excavation campaigns conducted in the area (2006-2008) have revealed four evolutionary phases, but the meagre archaeological remains do not allow an immediate reading of the area or an easy understanding of the ancient structures. This paper aim to give back to the community the possibility of understanding the evolution of the fortress through virtual reconstructions.
Starting from the studies and sources, the digital reconstruction project of the medieval fortress was developed. It consisted of three actions: a photogrammetric survey by drone, a digital processing of the 3D model and a three-dimensional modelling of the structures that no longer exist.

Azamat Zakirov, Ilyas Yanbukhtin, Timur Mamarozikov, Ilkhom Alimukhamedov, Farangiz Omonova, Ulugbek Musaev, Otabek Aripjanov
ERT and magnetic surveying: The case study of Khayrabadtepa sattelment (Southern Uzbekistan)

The use of geophysical methods has become an integral part of the work at all stages of archaeological research. Geophysics contribute to the efficient and rapid detection of buried objects.
One of the effective methods for mapping archaeological sites is an areal magnetic survey that reveals anomalies associated with the residual magnetization of such objects. To study the deep structure of complex objects in conditions of variable relief, the method of electrical tomography (ERT) has been well recommended.
Geophysical work was carried out within the boundaries of the settlement of Khayrabadtepa, which is a monument of the Kushan period in the territory of Northern Bactria. The settlement is located 1 km southwest of the city of Angor, 30 km northwest of the city of Termez.

Jem Erika Nique, Emilio Catelli, Zohreh Chahardoli, Rocco Mazzeo
Scientific Examination for the Investigation of the Painting Technique of Contemporary Mural Paintings: The Angry Christ by Alfonso Ossorio in Victorias, Negros Occidental, Philippines

The Last Judgement, known as The Angry Christ, is a 60-square-meter contemporary mural painting by Alfonso Ossorio in Victorias, Negros Occidental, Philippines. The artist was reported to use the penetrative binder Ethyl Silicate 40 (ES40) together with an appropriate palette to withstand the harsh tropical conditions, as recommended by paint chemist Ralph Mayer. A combination of non-destructive and micro-destructive techniques was performed to look into the stratigraphy of the mural painting, clarifying the use of the tempera technique as a restoration intervention, characterizing physical and chemical reactions which resulted in chromatic alterations, and confirming the presence and depth of penetration of the ES40 binder. This study confirmed the presence of micro-cracks and organic compounds such as oxalates and metal carboxylates, and the use of the ES40 binder and several recommended palettes. This study can provide further information on the materials characterization and benefit future conservation-restoration interventions to this mural painting.

Ivan Ferrari, Francesco Giuri, Maurizio Lazzari, Lara De Giorgi, Giovanni Leucci
Geophysical investigation at the archaeological site of Venosa (PZ)

The Roman amphitheater of Venosa (Potenza, southern Italy) is one of the experimental sites chosen as part of the IDEHA project (Innovation for Data Processing in Heritage Areas) in the Basilicata region, of which the CNR ISPC was scientific coordinator. This contribution presents the new results of the research more closely linked to the technical and constructive aspects of the monument, achieved starting from the instrumental survey performed with integrated techniques of laser scanning and digital photogrammetry. The metric data collected was integrated with those no longer visible that emerged during the archaeological excavation campaigns, which took place in 1841, 1925 and then in the 1980s and from a careful reconnaissance of the collapsed architectural elements present in situ. Despite the poor conditions of the wall structures, subject to centuries of abandonment and spoliations, it was possible to develop a reconstructive proposal for the amphitheater, with the creation of a three-dimensional model in which they critically merged all the collected data.

Salvatore Piro, Laura Cerri, Oscar Mei, Maria Raffaella Ciuccarelli
High resolution GPR survey to investigate the urban centres: the case of XX Settembre square of Fano (Fano, Italy)

This paper shows the preliminary results of a new archaeogeophysics investigations in Piazza XX Settembre in Fano carried out thanks to a collaboration between the Vitruvian Studies Center, the Superintendence of Archeology, Fine Arts and Landscape for the Provinces of Ancona and Pesaro and Urbino, the Institute of Heritage Sciences of the CNR of Rome and the Municipality of Fano. The new research includes a high-resolution georadar survey and a bibliographic and archival research, still in progress, concerning the square and its surrounding. The main purpose of this new study is to understand the evolution of this city s sector from the Roman period to the Medieval age, and intends also to investigate the historical and archaeological knowledge of this area located in the city s center of Fano.

Page 17 of 939 Results 161 - 170 of 9382